Bernard de Tremelay (10??-1153)

Translation : Andrew Zolnai

Master of the Templar Order from 1151 to 1153

Bernard de Tremelay originated from the Earldom of Burgundy, son of Humbert, lord of Tremelay.
The decision of Evrard des Barres to retire to the Clairvaux Abbey surprised the Order’s hierarchy. After months of negotiations the General Chapter decided to elect Bernard de Tremelay as their new Master. At the time he was Preceptor of the Temple-Lès-Dole in Jura, an important preceptory.

The moment he arrived in the Holy Land, Bernard de Tremelay was entertained by King Baldwin III. Baldwin gave him the command and property of the fortified city of Gaza, which at the time was in ruins.
de Tremelay rebuilt the city walls and built new towers and entrenchments to ensure the city was impregnable.

He also reinforced the system of coastal defences by fortifying the cities of Jaffa(1), Arsuf(2), and some other strongholds, indispensable to the survival of the East Latin Kingdom.

Baldwin III decided to take advantage of several military victories over Nur-al-Din armies and the internal disputes between some Muslim dignitaries. Baldwin gathered his troops and left for the fortified city of Ascalon to besiege it.
In January 1153, Franks besieged the city but failed to enter it. In the zone occupied by Templars, an assault tower was placed near the city walls, causing death and terror amongst the defenders.

Jean Colombe dans 'Passages d'Outremer' de Sébastien Mamerot (1472-1475)) - BNF FR.5594
The battle of Ascalon by Jean Colombe (1472-1475) - BNF
Source : Wikipédia

During the night of August 15th the city’s defenders tried to set fire to the tower by lighting a big woodshed at its foot.
Unfortunately for the defenders, the wind turned the fire against the city walls. The walls were already damaged by mines and the constant assaults of war. A big part of the walls collapsed, opening a breach in the defences. Straight away, Bernard de Tremelay and forty Temple knights rush through this opening and entered the city. At the same time they impeded the access of others assailants.
The Turkish defenders, initially in fear of Christians entering their city, regrouped and killed or captured all the Templars, including the Master, Bernard de Tremelay. On the evening of 16th, the decapitated corpses of the forty Templar Knights were hung by their feet at the top of the city walls.
The view of these massacred bodies tortured Christians minds and provoked wrath in their ranks. The city fell 3 days later.

The original siege saw the first death of a Master of the Temple in fighting. As a consequence, an argument was created regarding the Templars’ acts.
Some chroniclers, such as William of Tyre, interpreted the acts as the Templars’ desire to seize the city alone and therefore keep the plunder for themselves.
Others chroniclers saw a brilliant feat whereby Knights Templar entered the city as scouts to protect the progress of the rest of Frankish army.

According to most texts, it seems the second version is more logical, but perhaps History will remember the interpretation of the great chronicler William of Tyre; a man with a particular dislike of the Templars.

Previous Master : Evrard des Barres - Next Master : Andre de Montbard

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Notes :

(1)Jaffa is located in Israel, in the southern suburbs of the modern city of Tel Aviv. Jaffa was one of the three main ports of the Holy Land with Acre and Caesarea. The origin of this city goes back to Antiquity, where it appears in Egyptian texts since the year 1500 BC. In the Acts of the Apostles, the city is mentioned as Joppé or Jophé. It was conquered in 1099 by the Crusaders, shortly after Jerusalem, during the 1st Crusade. It was taken over by the Muslims after the Battle of Hattin in 1187, before returning to the hands of the Christians in 1191 during the 3rd Crusade. It was definitively conquered by the armies of Baybars in 1268.

(2)Arsuf is located in Israel, about 20 km north of Tel Aviv. The city was first conquered by the Crusaders in 1101. It is taken over by the Muslims after the Battle of Hattin in 1187, before returning to the hands of the Christians in 1191 during the 3rd Crusade. In 1261 the city and the fortress became the property of the Order of the Hospital of St John before being conquered by the armies of Baybars in 1265.

More references... Bibliography
  1. "Histoire des Croisades et du Royaume Franc de Jerusalem (3 volumes)"
    René Grousset ; Librairie Académique Perrin 1991
  2. "Armorial des Maîtres de l'Ordre du Temple"
    Bernard Marillier ; Editions Pardès, 2000
  3. "Les Grands Maîtres de l'Ordre du Temple"
    Jacques Rolland ; Editions Dervy, 2004
  4. "Histoire des Templiers"
    J.-J.-E. Roy ; Editions Pardès, 1999
  5. "The Central Convent of Hospitalers and Templars - History, Organization and Personel (1099/1120-1310)"
    Jochen Burgtorf ; Editions Brill, 2008
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Translation : Andrew Zolnai
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